Newton’s first law implies that an object oscillating back and forth is experiencing forces. Without force, the object would move in a straight line at a constant speed rather than oscillate. Consider, for example, plucking a plastic ruler to the left as shown in [link]. The deformation of the ruler creates a force in the opposite direction, known as a restoring force. Once released, the restoring force causes the ruler to move back toward its stable equilibrium position, where the net force on it is zero. However, by the time the ruler gets there, it gains momentum and continues to move to the right, producing the opposite deformation. It is then forced to the left, back through equilibrium, and the process is repeated until dissipative forces dampen the motion. These forces remove mechanical energy from the system, gradually reducing the motion until the ruler comes to rest.

The simplest oscillations occur when the restoring force is directly proportional to displacement. When stress and strain were covered in Newton’s Third Law of Motion, the name was given to this relationship between force and displacement was Hooke’s law:

Here, *$F$* is the restoring force, *$x$* is the displacement from equilibrium or deformation, and $k$ is a constant related to the difficulty in deforming the system. The minus sign indicates the restoring force is in the direction opposite to the displacement.

The force constant *$k$* is related to the rigidity (or stiffness) of a system—the larger the force constant, the greater the restoring force, and the stiffer the system. The units of *$k$* are newtons per meter (N/m). For example, *$k$* is directly related to Young’s modulus when we stretch a string. [link] shows a graph of the absolute value of the restoring force versus the displacement for a system that can be described by Hooke’s law—a simple spring in this case. The slope of the graph equals the force constant *$k$* in newtons per meter. A common physics laboratory exercise is to measure restoring forces created by springs, determine if they follow Hooke’s law, and calculate their force constants if they do.

What is the force constant for the suspension system of a car that settles 1.20 cm when an 80.0-kg person gets in?

**Strategy**

Consider the car to be in its equilibrium position $x=0$ before the person gets in. The car then settles down 1.20 cm, which means it is displaced to a position $x=-1\text{.}\text{20}\times {\text{10}}^{-2}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}$. At that point, the springs supply a restoring force $F$ equal to the person’s weight $w=\text{mg}=\left(\text{80}\text{.}0\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\right)\left(9\text{.}\text{80}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m/s}}^{2}\right)=\text{784}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}$. We take this force to be *$F$* in Hooke’s law. Knowing *$F$* and *$x$*, we can then solve the force constant *$k$*.

**Solution**

- Solve Hooke’s law, $F=-\text{kx}$, for $k$
*:*$k=-\frac{F}{x}.$Substitute known values and solve $k$:

$\begin{array}{lll}k& =& -\frac{\text{784}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N}}{-1\text{.}\text{20}\times {\text{10}}^{-2}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}}\\ & =& 6\text{.}\text{53}\times {\text{10}}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N/m}.\end{array}$

**Discussion**

Note that $F$ and $x$ have opposite signs because they are in opposite directions—the restoring force is up, and the displacement is down. Also, note that the car would oscillate up and down when the person got in if it were not for damping (due to frictional forces) provided by shock absorbers. Bouncing cars are a sure sign of bad shock absorbers.

# Energy in Hooke’s Law of Deformation

In order to produce a deformation, work must be done. That is, a force must be exerted through a distance, whether you pluck a guitar string or compress a car spring. If the only result is deformation, and no work goes into thermal, sound, or kinetic energy, then all the work is initially stored in the deformed object as some form of potential energy. The potential energy stored in a spring is ${\text{PE}}_{\text{el}}=\frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{kx}}^{2}$. Here, we generalize the idea to elastic potential energy for a deformation of any system that can be described by Hooke’s law. Hence,

where ${\text{PE}}_{\text{el}}$ is the elastic potential energy stored in any deformed system that obeys Hooke’s law and has a displacement *$x$* from equilibrium and a force constant $k$.

It is possible to find the work done in deforming a system in order to find the energy stored. This work is performed by an applied force ${F}_{\text{app}}$. The applied force is exactly opposite to the restoring force (action-reaction), and so ${F}_{\text{app}}=\text{kx}$. [link] shows a graph of the applied force versus deformation $x$ for a system that can be described by Hooke’s law. Work done on the system is force multiplied by distance, which equals the area under the curve or $(1/2){\mathrm{kx}}^{2}$^{(Method A in the figure). Another way to determine the work is to note that the force increases linearly from 0 to $\mathrm{kx}$, so that the average force is $(1/2)\mathrm{kx}$, the distance moved is $x$, and thus $W={F}_{\text{app}}d=[(1/2)\text{kx}](x)=(1/2){\mathrm{kx}}^{2}$ (Method B in the figure).}

We can use a toy gun’s spring mechanism to ask and answer two simple questions: (a) How much energy is stored in the spring of a tranquilizer gun that has a force constant of 50.0 N/m and is compressed 0.150 m? (b) If you neglect friction and the mass of the spring, at what speed will a 2.00-g projectile be ejected from the gun?

**Strategy for a**

(a): The energy stored in the spring can be found directly from elastic potential energy equation, because $k$ and $x$ are given.

**Solution for a**

Entering the given values for $k$ and $x$ yields

**Strategy for b**

Because there is no friction, the potential energy is converted entirely into kinetic energy. The expression for kinetic energy can be solved for the projectile’s speed.

**Solution for b**

- Identify known quantities:
${\text{KE}}_{\text{f}}={\text{PE}}_{\text{el}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}or\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}1/2{\mathit{mv}}^{2}=(1/2){\mathit{kx}}^{2}={\text{PE}}_{\mathrm{el}}=0\text{.}\text{563}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$
- Solve for $v$:
$v={\left[\frac{2{\text{PE}}_{\text{el}}}{m}\right]}^{1/2}={\left[\frac{2\left(0\text{.}\text{563}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}\right)}{0\text{.}\text{002}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}}\right]}^{1/2}=\text{23}\text{.}7{\left(\text{J/kg}\right)}^{1/2}$
- Convert units: $23.7\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}/\text{s}$

**Discussion**

(a) and (b): This projectile speed is impressive for a tranquilizer gun (more than 80 km/h). The numbers in this problem seem reasonable. The force needed to compress the spring is small enough for an adult to manage, and the energy imparted to the dart is small enough to limit the damage it might do. Yet, the speed of the dart is great enough for it to travel an acceptable distance.

If you apply a deforming force on an object and let it come to equilibrium, what happened to the work you did on the system?

It was stored in the object as potential energy.

# Section Summary

- An oscillation is a back and forth motion of an object between two points of deformation.
- An oscillation may create a wave, which is a disturbance that propagates from where it was created.
- The simplest type of oscillations and waves are related to systems that can be described by Hooke’s law:
$F=-\text{kx},$
where $F$ is the restoring force, $x$ is the displacement from equilibrium or deformation, and $k$ is the force constant of the system.

- Elastic potential energy ${\text{PE}}_{\text{el}}$ stored in the deformation of a system that can be described by Hooke’s law is given by
${\text{PE}}_{\text{el}}=(1/2){\mathit{\text{kx}}}^{2}.$

# Conceptual Questions

Describe a system in which elastic potential energy is stored.

# Problems & Exercises

Fish are hung on a spring scale to determine their mass (most fishermen feel no obligation to truthfully report the mass).

(a) What is the force constant of the spring in such a scale if it the spring stretches 8.00 cm for a 10.0 kg load?

(b) What is the mass of a fish that stretches the spring 5.50 cm?

(c) How far apart are the half-kilogram marks on the scale?

(a) $1\text{.}\text{23}\times {\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N/m}$

(b) $6\text{.}\text{88 kg}$

(c) $4\text{.00 mm}$

It is weigh-in time for the local under-85-kg rugby team. The bathroom scale used to assess eligibility can be described by Hooke’s law and is depressed 0.75 cm by its maximum load of 120 kg. (a) What is the spring’s effective spring constant? (b) A player stands on the scales and depresses it by 0.48 cm. Is he eligible to play on this under-85 kg team?

One type of BB gun uses a spring-driven plunger to blow the BB from its barrel. (a) Calculate the force constant of its plunger’s spring if you must compress it 0.150 m to drive the 0.0500-kg plunger to a top speed of 20.0 m/s. (b) What force must be exerted to compress the spring?

(a) 889 N/m

(b) 133 N

(a) The springs of a pickup truck act like a single spring with a force constant of $1\text{.}\text{30}\times {\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N/m}$. By how much will the truck be depressed by its maximum load of 1000 kg?

(b) If the pickup truck has four identical springs, what is the force constant of each?

When an 80.0-kg man stands on a pogo stick, the spring is compressed 0.120 m.

(a) What is the force constant of the spring? (b) Will the spring be compressed more when he hops down the road?

(a) $6\text{.}\text{53}\times {\text{10}}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{N/m}$

(b) Yes

A spring has a length of 0.200 m when a 0.300-kg mass hangs from it, and a length of 0.750 m when a 1.95-kg mass hangs from it. (a) What is the force constant of the spring? (b) What is the unloaded length of the spring?

- College Physics
- Preface
- Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
- Kinematics
- Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics
- Displacement
- Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
- Time, Velocity, and Speed
- Acceleration
- Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
- Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
- Falling Objects
- Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion

- Two-Dimensional Kinematics
- Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
- Introduction to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion
- Development of Force Concept
- Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
- Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
- Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
- Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
- Problem-Solving Strategies
- Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
- Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

- Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
- Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
- Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
- Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
- Work: The Scientific Definition
- Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
- Gravitational Potential Energy
- Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
- Nonconservative Forces
- Conservation of Energy
- Power
- Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
- World Energy Use

- Linear Momentum and Collisions
- Statics and Torque
- Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
- Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
- Angular Acceleration
- Kinematics of Rotational Motion
- Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
- Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
- Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
- Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
- Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

- Fluid Statics
- Introduction to Fluid Statics
- What Is a Fluid?
- Density
- Pressure
- Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
- Pascal’s Principle
- Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
- Archimedes’ Principle
- Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
- Pressures in the Body

- Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
- Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
- Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
- Bernoulli’s Equation
- The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
- Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
- The Onset of Turbulence
- Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
- Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

- Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
- Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
- Thermodynamics
- Introduction to Thermodynamics
- The First Law of Thermodynamics
- The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
- Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
- Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
- Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
- Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
- Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

- Oscillatory Motion and Waves
- Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and Waves
- Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
- Period and Frequency in Oscillations
- Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
- The Simple Pendulum
- Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
- Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
- Damped Harmonic Motion
- Forced Oscillations and Resonance
- Waves
- Superposition and Interference
- Energy in Waves: Intensity

- Physics of Hearing
- Electric Charge and Electric Field
- Introduction to Electric Charge and Electric Field
- Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
- Conductors and Insulators
- Coulomb’s Law
- Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
- Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
- Electric Forces in Biology
- Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
- Applications of Electrostatics

- Electric Potential and Electric Field
- Introduction to Electric Potential and Electric Energy
- Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
- Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
- Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
- Equipotential Lines
- Capacitors and Dielectrics
- Capacitors in Series and Parallel
- Energy Stored in Capacitors

- Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
- Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
- Magnetism
- Introduction to Magnetism
- Magnets
- Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
- Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
- Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
- Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
- The Hall Effect
- Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
- Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
- Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
- Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
- More Applications of Magnetism

- Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
- Introduction to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies
- Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
- Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
- Motional Emf
- Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
- Electric Generators
- Back Emf
- Transformers
- Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
- Inductance
- RL Circuits
- Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
- RLC Series AC Circuits

- Electromagnetic Waves
- Geometric Optics
- Vision and Optical Instruments
- Wave Optics
- Introduction to Wave Optics
- The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
- Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
- Young’s Double Slit Experiment
- Multiple Slit Diffraction
- Single Slit Diffraction
- Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
- Thin Film Interference
- Polarization
- *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light

- Special Relativity
- Introduction to Quantum Physics
- Atomic Physics
- Introduction to Atomic Physics
- Discovery of the Atom
- Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
- Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
- X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
- Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
- The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
- Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
- Quantum Numbers and Rules
- The Pauli Exclusion Principle

- Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
- Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
- Particle Physics
- Frontiers of Physics
- Atomic Masses
- Selected Radioactive Isotopes
- Useful Information
- Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation