Giáo trình

Computer Architecture

Science and Technology


Tác giả: Hoang Lan Nguyen

I/O Overview

The computer system’s I/O architecture is its interface to the outside world. The I/O components consist the buses, the keybroads, CRT Minitor, Flat panel display, scanner, modem …The I/O architecture consiste the buses and a set of I/O modules, each module interfaces to the bus system or to the outside world.

  • There are 3 principal I/O techniques:

- Programmed I/O

- Interrupt-dreiven I/O

- Direct Memory Access (DMA)

  • There are two I/O techniques.

I/O parallel

I/O serial

  1. Buses

The collection of paths that connect the system modules together form the interconnection structure.

  • Bus Interconnection

Computer systems contain a number of buses that provide pathways between


– Shared transmission media connecting 2 or more devices together

– Broadcast, 1-to-all operation

– Must insure only 1 device places information onto a bus at any given time

  • Typical buses consist of 50-100 lines

- Address information (address bus)

Specifies source/destination of data transfer

Width determines the capacity of the system

– Data information (data bus)

Width is key in determining overall performance

– Control information: Controls access to and use of the address and data bus

– Miscellaneous: power, ground, clock

  • Bus performance and limitations

The performance is limited by:

+ Data propagation delay through the bus longer buses (to support more devices) require longer delays

+ Aggregate demand for access to the bus from all devices connected to the bus

multiple buses To avoid bottlenecks,

  • Multiple Buses:

– Hierarchical

– High-speed limited access buses close to the processor

– Slower-speed general access buses farther away from the processor.

  • External Bus - PC bus

ISA (Industrial Standard Architecture)

– First open system bus architecture for PCs (meaning IBM-type machines)

– 8-bit and 16-bit ISA buses


- Micro Channel Architecture


  • VESA Video Local Bus
  • Bus architecture and organization
Hierarchical bus configurations

I/O Modules and InterfaceStructure

  • Programmed I/O
  • Interrup Drive I/O
  • Direct Memory Access