Introductory StatisticsMathematics and Statistics
By the end of this chapter, the student should be able to:
- Recognize and understand discrete probability distribution functions, in general.
- Calculate and interpret expected values.
- Recognize the binomial probability distribution and apply it appropriately.
- Recognize the Poisson probability distribution and apply it appropriately.
- Recognize the geometric probability distribution and apply it appropriately.
- Recognize the hypergeometric probability distribution and apply it appropriately.
- Classify discrete word problems by their distributions.
A student takes a ten-question, true-false quiz. Because the student had such a busy schedule, he or she could not study and guesses randomly at each answer. What is the probability of the student passing the test with at least a 70%?
Small companies might be interested in the number of long-distance phone calls their employees make during the peak time of the day. Suppose the average is 20 calls. What is the probability that the employees make more than 20 long-distance phone calls during the peak time?
These two examples illustrate two different types of probability problems involving discrete random variables. Recall that discrete data are data that you can count. A random variable describes the outcomes of a statistical experiment in words. The values of a random variable can vary with each repetition of an experiment.
Random Variable Notation
Upper case letters such as X or Y denote a random variable. Lower case letters like x or y denote the value of a random variable. If X is a random variable, then X is written in words, and x is given as a number.
For example, let X = the number of heads you get when you toss three fair coins. The sample space for the toss of three fair coins is TTT; THH; HTH; HHT; HTT; THT; TTH; HHH. Then, x = 0, 1, 2, 3. X is in words and x is a number. Notice that for this example, the x values are countable outcomes. Because you can count the possible values that X can take on and the outcomes are random (the x values 0, 1, 2, 3), X is a discrete random variable.
Toss a coin ten times and record the number of heads. After all members of the class have completed the experiment (tossed a coin ten times and counted the number of heads), fill in [link]. Let X = the number of heads in ten tosses of the coin.
|x||Frequency of x||Relative Frequency of x|
- Which value(s) of x occurred most frequently?
- If you tossed the coin 1,000 times, what values could x take on? Which value(s) of x do you think would occur most frequently?
- What does the relative frequency column sum to?
- Introductory Statistics
- Sampling and Data
- Descriptive Statistics
- Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
- Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
- Measures of the Location of the Data
- Box Plots
- Measures of the Center of the Data
- Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
- Measures of the Spread of the Data
- Descriptive Statistics
- Probability Topics
- Discrete Random Variables
- Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
- Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
- Binomial Distribution
- Geometric Distribution
- Hypergeometric Distribution
- Poisson Distribution
- Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
- Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
- Continuous Random Variables
- The Normal Distribution
- The Central Limit Theorem
- Confidence Intervals
- Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
- Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
- The Chi-Square Distribution
- Linear Regression and Correlation
- F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA
- Appendix A: Review Exercises (Ch 3-13)
- Appendix B: Practice Tests (1-4) and Final Exams
- Appendix C: Data Sets
- Appendix D: Group and Partner Projects
- Appendix E: Solution Sheets
- Appendix F: Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
- Appendix G: Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators
- Appendix H: Tables