Introductory StatisticsMathematics and Statistics
By the end of this chapter, the student should be able to:
- Differentiate between Type I and Type II Errors
- Describe hypothesis testing in general and in practice
- Conduct and interpret hypothesis tests for a single population mean, population standard deviation known.
- Conduct and interpret hypothesis tests for a single population mean, population standard deviation unknown.
- Conduct and interpret hypothesis tests for a single population proportion.
One job of a statistician is to make statistical inferences about populations based on samples taken from the population. Confidence intervals are one way to estimate a population parameter. Another way to make a statistical inference is to make a decision about a parameter. For instance, a car dealer advertises that its new small truck gets 35 miles per gallon, on average. A tutoring service claims that its method of tutoring helps 90% of its students get an A or a B. A company says that women managers in their company earn an average of $60,000 per year.
A statistician will make a decision about these claims. This process is called "hypothesis testing." A hypothesis test involves collecting data from a sample and evaluating the data. Then, the statistician makes a decision as to whether or not there is sufficient evidence, based upon analyses of the data, to reject the null hypothesis.
In this chapter, you will conduct hypothesis tests on single means and single proportions. You will also learn about the errors associated with these tests.
Hypothesis testing consists of two contradictory hypotheses or statements, a decision based on the data, and a conclusion. To perform a hypothesis test, a statistician will:
- Set up two contradictory hypotheses.
- Collect sample data (in homework problems, the data or summary statistics will be given to you).
- Determine the correct distribution to perform the hypothesis test.
- Analyze sample data by performing the calculations that ultimately will allow you to reject or decline to reject the null hypothesis.
- Make a decision and write a meaningful conclusion.
To do the hypothesis test homework problems for this chapter and later chapters, make copies of the appropriate special solution sheets. See Appendix E.
- Introductory Statistics
- Sampling and Data
- Descriptive Statistics
- Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
- Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
- Measures of the Location of the Data
- Box Plots
- Measures of the Center of the Data
- Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
- Measures of the Spread of the Data
- Descriptive Statistics
- Probability Topics
- Discrete Random Variables
- Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
- Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
- Binomial Distribution
- Geometric Distribution
- Hypergeometric Distribution
- Poisson Distribution
- Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
- Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
- Continuous Random Variables
- The Normal Distribution
- The Central Limit Theorem
- Confidence Intervals
- Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
- Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
- The Chi-Square Distribution
- Linear Regression and Correlation
- F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA
- Appendix A: Review Exercises (Ch 3-13)
- Appendix B: Practice Tests (1-4) and Final Exams
- Appendix C: Data Sets
- Appendix D: Group and Partner Projects
- Appendix E: Solution Sheets
- Appendix F: Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
- Appendix G: Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators
- Appendix H: Tables