# College Physics

Science and Technology## Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods

Analytical methods of vector addition and subtraction employ geometry and simple trigonometry rather than the ruler and protractor of graphical methods. Part of the graphical technique is retained, because vectors are still represented by arrows for easy visualization. However, analytical methods are more concise, accurate, and precise than graphical methods, which are limited by the accuracy with which a drawing can be made. Analytical methods are limited only by the accuracy and precision with which physical quantities are known.

# Resolving a Vector into Perpendicular Components

Analytical techniques and right triangles go hand-in-hand in physics because (among other things) motions along perpendicular directions are independent. We very often need to separate a vector into perpendicular components. For example, given a vector like $\mathbf{A}$ in [link], we may wish to find which two perpendicular vectors, ${\mathbf{A}}_{x}$ and ${\mathbf{A}}_{y}$, add to produce it.

${\mathbf{A}}_{x}$ and ${\mathbf{A}}_{y}$ are defined to be the components of $\mathbf{A}$ along the * x*- and

*-axes. The three vectors $\mathbf{A}$, ${\mathbf{A}}_{x}$, and ${\mathbf{A}}_{y}$ form a right triangle:*

*y*Note that this relationship between vector components and the resultant vector holds only for vector quantities (which include both magnitude and direction). The relationship does not apply for the magnitudes alone. For example, if ${\mathbf{\text{A}}}_{x}=\mathrm{3\; m}$ east,
${\mathbf{\text{A}}}_{y}=\mathrm{4\; m}$ north, and
$\mathbf{\text{A}}=\mathrm{5\; m}$ north-east, then it is true that the vectors ${\mathbf{A}}_{x}{\text{+A}}_{y}\text{=A}$. However, it is * not* true that the sum of the magnitudes of the vectors is also equal. That is,

Thus,

If the vector $\mathbf{A}$ is known, then its magnitude $A$ (its length) and its angle $\theta $ (its direction) are known. To find ${A}_{x}$ and ${A}_{y}$, its * x*- and

*-components, we use the following relationships for a right triangle.*

*y*and

Suppose, for example, that $\mathbf{A}$ is the vector representing the total displacement of the person walking in a city considered in Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction and Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods.

Then $A=10.3$ blocks and $\theta =\mathrm{29.1\xba}$ , so that

# Calculating a Resultant Vector

If the perpendicular components ${\mathbf{A}}_{x}$ and ${\mathbf{A}}_{y}$ of a vector $\mathbf{A}$ are known, then $\mathbf{A}$ can also be found analytically. To find the magnitude $A$ and direction $\theta $ of a vector from its perpendicular components ${\mathbf{A}}_{x}$ and ${\mathbf{A}}_{y}$, we use the following relationships:

Note that the equation $A=\sqrt{{A}_{x}^{2}+{A}_{y}^{2}}$ is just the Pythagorean theorem relating the legs of a right triangle to the length of the hypotenuse. For example, if ${A}_{x}$ and ${A}_{y}$ are 9 and 5 blocks, respectively, then $A=\sqrt{{9}^{2}{\text{+5}}^{2}}\text{=10}\text{.}3$ blocks, again consistent with the example of the person walking in a city. Finally, the direction is $\theta ={\text{tan}}^{\mathrm{\u20131}}(\text{5/9})\mathrm{=29.1\xba}$ , as before.

# Adding Vectors Using Analytical Methods

To see how to add vectors using perpendicular components, consider [link], in which the vectors $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ are added to produce the resultant $\mathbf{R}$.

If $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ represent two legs of a walk (two displacements), then $\mathbf{R}$ is the total displacement. The person taking the walk ends up at the tip of $\mathbf{R}.$ There are many ways to arrive at the same point. In particular, the person could have walked first in the *x*-direction and then in the *y*-direction. Those paths are the *x*- and *y*-components of the resultant, ${\mathbf{R}}_{x}$ and ${\mathbf{R}}_{y}$. If we know
${\mathbf{\text{R}}}_{x}$ and ${\mathbf{R}}_{y}$, we can find
$R$ and
$\theta $ using the equations
$A=\sqrt{{{A}_{x}}^{2}+{{A}_{y}}^{2}}$ and
$\theta ={\text{tan}}^{\mathrm{\u20131}}({A}_{y}/{A}_{x})$. When you use the analytical method of vector addition, you can determine the components or the magnitude and direction of a vector.

* Step 1. Identify the x- and y-axes that will be used in the problem. Then, find the components of each vector to be added along the chosen perpendicular axes.* Use the equations
${A}_{x}=A\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta $ and
${A}_{y}=A\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta $ to find the components. In [link], these components are
${A}_{x}$,
${A}_{y}$,
${B}_{x}$, and
${B}_{y}$. The angles that vectors $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ make with the

*-axis are ${\theta}_{\text{A}}$ and ${\theta}_{\text{B}}$, respectively.*

*x** Step 2. Find the components of the resultant along each axis by adding the components of the individual vectors along that axis.* That is, as shown in [link],

and

Components along the same axis, say the * x*-axis, are vectors along the same line and, thus, can be added to one another like ordinary numbers. The same is true for components along the

*-axis. (For example, a 9-block eastward walk could be taken in two legs, the first 3 blocks east and the second 6 blocks east, for a total of 9, because they are along the same direction.) So resolving vectors into components along common axes makes it easier to add them. Now that the components of $\mathbf{R}$ are known, its magnitude and direction can be found.*

*y***Step 3.*** To get the magnitude $R$ of the resultant, use the Pythagorean theorem:*

**Step 4.*** To get the direction of the resultant:*

The following example illustrates this technique for adding vectors using perpendicular components.

Add the vector $\mathbf{A}$ to the vector $\mathbf{B}$ shown in [link], using perpendicular components along the * x*- and

*-axes. The*

*y**- and*

*x**-axes are along the east–west and north–south directions, respectively. Vector $\mathbf{A}$ represents the first leg of a walk in which a person walks $\text{53}\text{.}\text{0 m}$ in a direction $\text{20}\text{.}0\text{\xba}$ north of east. Vector $\mathbf{B}$ represents the second leg, a displacement of $\text{34}\text{.}\text{0 m}$ in a direction $\text{63}\text{.}0\text{\xba}$ north of east.*

*y***Strategy**

The components of $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ along the * x*- and

*-axes represent walking due east and due north to get to the same ending point. Once found, they are combined to produce the resultant.*

*y***Solution**

Following the method outlined above, we first find the components of
$\mathbf{A}$ and
$\mathbf{B}$ along the * x*- and

*-axes. Note that $A=\mathrm{53.0\; m}\text{}$, ${\theta}_{\text{A}}=\mathrm{20.0\xba}$, $B=\mathrm{34.0\; m}\text{}$, and ${\theta}_{\text{B}}=\mathrm{63.0\xba}$. We find the*

*y**-components by using ${A}_{x}=A\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta $, which gives*

*x*and

Similarly, the *y*-components are found using ${A}_{y}=A\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\theta}_{\mathrm{A}}$:

and

The * x*- and

*-components of the resultant are thus*

*y*and

Now we can find the magnitude of the resultant by using the Pythagorean theorem:

so that

Finally, we find the direction of the resultant:

Thus,

**Discussion**

This example illustrates the addition of vectors using perpendicular components. Vector subtraction using perpendicular components is very similar—it is just the addition of a negative vector.

Subtraction of vectors is accomplished by the addition of a negative vector. That is, $\mathbf{A}-\mathbf{B}\equiv \mathbf{A}+(\mathbf{\u2013B})$. Thus, *the method for the subtraction of vectors using perpendicular components is identical to that for addition*. The components of
$\mathbf{\text{\u2013B}}$ are the negatives of the components of
$\mathbf{B}$. The *x*- and * y*-components of the resultant $\mathbf{A}-\text{B = R}$ are thus

and

and the rest of the method outlined above is identical to that for addition. (See [link].)

Analyzing vectors using perpendicular components is very useful in many areas of physics, because perpendicular quantities are often independent of one another. The next module, Projectile Motion, is one of many in which using perpendicular components helps make the picture clear and simplifies the physics.

# Summary

- The analytical method of vector addition and subtraction involves using the Pythagorean theorem and trigonometric identities to determine the magnitude and direction of a resultant vector.
- The steps to add vectors $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ using the analytical method are as follows:
Step 1: Determine the coordinate system for the vectors. Then, determine the horizontal and vertical components of each vector using the equations

$\begin{array}{lll}{A}_{x}& =& A\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta \\ {B}_{x}& =& B\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta \end{array}$and

$\begin{array}{lll}{A}_{y}& =& A\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta \\ {B}_{y}& =& B\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta \text{.}\end{array}$Step 2: Add the horizontal and vertical components of each vector to determine the components ${R}_{x}$ and ${R}_{y}$ of the resultant vector, $\mathbf{\text{R}}$:

${R}_{x}={A}_{x}+{B}_{x}$and

${R}_{y}={A}_{y}+{B}_{y.}$Step 3: Use the Pythagorean theorem to determine the magnitude, $R$, of the resultant vector $\mathbf{\text{R}}$:

$R=\sqrt{{R}_{x}^{2}+{R}_{y}^{2}}.$Step 4: Use a trigonometric identity to determine the direction, $\theta $, of $\mathbf{\text{R}}$:

$\theta ={\text{tan}}^{-1}({R}_{y}/{R}_{x}).$

# Conceptual Questions

Suppose you add two vectors $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$. What relative direction between them produces the resultant with the greatest magnitude? What is the maximum magnitude? What relative direction between them produces the resultant with the smallest magnitude? What is the minimum magnitude?

Give an example of a nonzero vector that has a component of zero.

Explain why a vector cannot have a component greater than its own magnitude.

If the vectors $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ are perpendicular, what is the component of $\mathbf{A}$ along the direction of $\mathbf{B}$? What is the component of $\mathbf{B}$ along the direction of $\mathbf{A}$?

# Problems & Exercises

Find the following for path C in [link]: (a) the total distance traveled and (b) the magnitude and direction of the displacement from start to finish. In this part of the problem, explicitly show how you follow the steps of the analytical method of vector addition.

(a) 1.56 km

(b) 120 m east

Find the following for path D in [link]: (a) the total distance traveled and (b) the magnitude and direction of the displacement from start to finish. In this part of the problem, explicitly show how you follow the steps of the analytical method of vector addition.

Find the north and east components of the displacement from San Francisco to Sacramento shown in [link].

North-component 87.0 km, east-component 87.0 km

Solve the following problem using analytical techniques: Suppose you walk 18.0 m straight west and then 25.0 m straight north. How far are you from your starting point, and what is the compass direction of a line connecting your starting point to your final position? (If you represent the two legs of the walk as vector displacements $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$, as in [link], then this problem asks you to find their sum $\mathbf{R}=\mathbf{A}+\mathbf{B}$.)

Note that you can also solve this graphically. Discuss why the analytical technique for solving this problem is potentially more accurate than the graphical technique.

Repeat [link] using analytical techniques, but reverse the order of the two legs of the walk and show that you get the same final result. (This problem shows that adding them in reverse order gives the same result—that is, $\mathbf{\text{B + A = A + B}}$.) Discuss how taking another path to reach the same point might help to overcome an obstacle blocking you other path.

30.8 m, 35.8 west of north

You drive $7\text{.}\text{50 km}$ in a straight line in a direction $\mathrm{15\xba}$ east of north. (a) Find the distances you would have to drive straight east and then straight north to arrive at the same point. (This determination is equivalent to find the components of the displacement along the east and north directions.) (b) Show that you still arrive at the same point if the east and north legs are reversed in order.

Do [link] again using analytical techniques and change the second leg of the walk to $\text{25.0 m}$ straight south. (This is equivalent to subtracting $\mathbf{B}$ from $\mathbf{A}$ —that is, finding $\mathbf{\text{R}}\prime =\mathbf{\text{A \u2013 B}}$) (b) Repeat again, but now you first walk $\text{25}\text{.}\text{0 m}$ north and then $\text{18}\text{.}\text{0 m}$ east. (This is equivalent to subtract $\mathbf{A}$ from $\mathbf{B}$ —that is, to find $\mathbf{A}=\mathbf{B}+\mathbf{C}$. Is that consistent with your result?)

(a) $\text{30}\text{.}\text{8 m}$, $\text{54}\text{.}\mathrm{2\xba}$ south of west

(b) $\text{30}\text{.}\text{8 m}$, $\text{54}\text{.}\mathrm{2\xba}$ north of east

A new landowner has a triangular piece of flat land she wishes to fence. Starting at the west corner, she measures the first side to be 80.0 m long and the next to be 105 m. These sides are represented as displacement vectors $\mathbf{A}$ from $\mathbf{B}$ in [link]. She then correctly calculates the length and orientation of the third side $\text{C}$. What is her result?

You fly $\text{32}\text{.}\text{0 km}$ in a straight line in still air in the direction $\mathrm{35.0\xba}$ south of west. (a) Find the distances you would have to fly straight south and then straight west to arrive at the same point. (This determination is equivalent to finding the components of the displacement along the south and west directions.) (b) Find the distances you would have to fly first in a direction $\mathrm{45.0\xba}$ south of west and then in a direction $\mathrm{45.0\xba}$ west of north. These are the components of the displacement along a different set of axes—one rotated $\mathrm{45\xba}$.

18.4 km south, then 26.2 km west(b) 31.5 km at $\mathrm{45.0\xba}$ south of west, then 5.56 km at $\mathrm{45.0\xba}$ west of north

A farmer wants to fence off his four-sided plot of flat land. He measures the first three sides, shown as $\mathbf{A},$ $\mathbf{B},$ and $\mathbf{C}$ in [link], and then correctly calculates the length and orientation of the fourth side $\mathbf{D}$. What is his result?

In an attempt to escape his island, Gilligan builds a raft and sets to sea. The wind shifts a great deal during the day, and he is blown along the following straight lines: $2\text{.}\text{50 km}$ $\mathrm{45.0\xba}$ north of west; then $4\text{.}\text{70 km}$ $\mathrm{60.0\xba}$ south of east; then $1.30\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ $\mathrm{25.0\xba}$ south of west; then $5\text{.}\text{10 km}$ straight east; then $1.70\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{km}$ $\mathrm{5.00\xba}$ east of north; then $7\text{.}\text{20 km}$ $\mathrm{55.0\xba}$ south of west; and finally $2\text{.}\text{80 km}$ $\mathrm{10.0\xba}$ north of east. What is his final position relative to the island?

$7\text{.}\text{34 km}$, $\text{63}\text{.}\mathrm{5\xba}$ south of east

Suppose a pilot flies $\text{40}\text{.}\text{0 km}$ in a direction $\text{60\xba}$ north of east and then flies $\text{30}\text{.}\text{0 km}$ in a direction $\text{15\xba}$ north of east as shown in [link]. Find her total distance $R$ from the starting point and the direction $\theta $ of the straight-line path to the final position. Discuss qualitatively how this flight would be altered by a wind from the north and how the effect of the wind would depend on both wind speed and the speed of the plane relative to the air mass.

### Tập tin đính kèm

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- College Physics
- Preface
- Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
- Kinematics
- Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics
- Displacement
- Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
- Time, Velocity, and Speed
- Acceleration
- Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
- Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
- Falling Objects
- Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion

- Two-Dimensional Kinematics
- Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
- Introduction to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion
- Development of Force Concept
- Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
- Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
- Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
- Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
- Problem-Solving Strategies
- Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
- Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction

- Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
- Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
- Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
- Linear Momentum and Collisions
- Statics and Torque
- Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
- Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
- Angular Acceleration
- Kinematics of Rotational Motion
- Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
- Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
- Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
- Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
- Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

- Fluid Statics
- Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
- Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
- Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
- Bernoulli’s Equation
- The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
- Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
- The Onset of Turbulence
- Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
- Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

- Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
- Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
- Thermodynamics
- Introduction to Thermodynamics
- The First Law of Thermodynamics
- The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
- Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
- Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
- Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
- Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
- Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

- Oscillatory Motion and Waves
- Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and Waves
- Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
- Period and Frequency in Oscillations
- Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
- The Simple Pendulum
- Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
- Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
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- Forced Oscillations and Resonance
- Waves
- Superposition and Interference
- Energy in Waves: Intensity

- Physics of Hearing
- Electric Charge and Electric Field
- Introduction to Electric Charge and Electric Field
- Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
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- Coulomb’s Law
- Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
- Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
- Electric Forces in Biology
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- Applications of Electrostatics

- Electric Potential and Electric Field
- Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
- Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
- Magnetism
- Introduction to Magnetism
- Magnets
- Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
- Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
- Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
- Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
- The Hall Effect
- Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
- Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
- Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
- Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
- More Applications of Magnetism

- Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
- Introduction to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies
- Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
- Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
- Motional Emf
- Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
- Electric Generators
- Back Emf
- Transformers
- Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
- Inductance
- RL Circuits
- Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
- RLC Series AC Circuits

- Electromagnetic Waves
- Geometric Optics
- Vision and Optical Instruments
- Wave Optics
- Introduction to Wave Optics
- The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
- Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
- Young’s Double Slit Experiment
- Multiple Slit Diffraction
- Single Slit Diffraction
- Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
- Thin Film Interference
- Polarization
- *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light

- Special Relativity
- Introduction to Quantum Physics
- Atomic Physics
- Introduction to Atomic Physics
- Discovery of the Atom
- Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
- Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
- X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
- Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
- The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
- Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
- Quantum Numbers and Rules
- The Pauli Exclusion Principle

- Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
- Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
- Particle Physics
- Frontiers of Physics
- Atomic Masses
- Selected Radioactive Isotopes
- Useful Information
- Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation