As an example of the application of op-amps in area of active filters, we will discuss the Butterwort filter. The discussion is only an introduction to the subject of the filter theory design. We will also discuss various types of oscillators, Schmitt trigger circuits, and nonsinusoidal oscillators.
We shall examine two types of simple circuits: a circuit comprising a resistor and capacitor and a circuit comprising a resistor and an inductor. These are called RC and RL circuits, respectively. As simple as these circuits are, they find continual applications in electronics, communications, and control system. We carry out the analysis of RC and RL circuits by applying Kirchhoff’s laws. The only difference is that applying Kirchhoff’s laws to purely resistive circuits, results in algebraic differential equations, which are more difficult to solve than algebraic equations. The differential equations resulting from analyzing RC and RL circuits are of the first order. Hence, the circuits are collectively known as first-order circuits.
We shall introduce two important passive linear circuit elements: the capacitor and the inductor. With the introduction of capacitors and inductors, we will be able analyze more important and practical circuits. We begin by introducing capacitors and describing how to combine them in series or in parallel. Later, we do the same for inductors. As typical applications, we explore how capacitors are combined with op amp to form integrators, differentiators.
We will develop two powerful techniques for circuit analysis: nodal analysis, which is based on a systematic application of Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) and mesh analysis which based on a systematic application of Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). With the two techniques to be developed we can analyze any linear circuit by obtaining a set of simultaneous equation that are then solved to obtain the required values of current or voltage. One method of solving simultaneous equations involves Cramer’s rule, which allow us to calculate circuit variables as a quotient of determinants. Finally, we apply the technique learned to analyze transistor circuits.
We introduce some fundamental laws govern electric circuits. These laws known as Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s laws, from the foundation upon which electric circuit analysis is build. In addition to these laws we shall discuss some techniques commonly applied in circuit design and analysis. These techniques include combining resistors in series or parallel, voltage division, current division and delta-to-wye and wye-to-delta transformations
We begin by discussing the ideal op amp and later consider the nonideal op amp. Using nodal analysis as a tool, we consider ideal op amp circuits such as the inverter, voltage follower, summer, and difference amplifier. Finally, we learn an op amp is used in digital-to-analog converters and instrumentation amplifiers.
We begin by considering the frequency response of simple circuits using their transfer functions. We then consider Bode plots which are the industry-standard way of presenting frequency response. We also consider series and parallel resonant circuits and encounter important concepts such as resonance, quality factor, cutoff frequency and bandwidth. We discuss different kinds of filters and network scaling. In the last section, we consider one practical application of resonant circuits and two applications of filters.
This module presents the basic concepts of MOSFET digital logic circuits. We will examine NMOS logic circuits, which contain only n-channel transistors, and complementary MOS, or CMOS, logic circuits, which contain both n-channel and p-channel transistors. The NMOS inverter is the basic of NMOS digital logic circuits. We will analyze the dc voltage transfer characteristics of several inverter designs. We will also define and develop the noise margin of NMOS digital circuits in terms of the inverter voltage transfer curve. We will then determine the impact of the body effect on the dc voltage transfer curve and the logic levels. A transient analysis of the NMOS inverter will determine the propagation delay time in NMOS logic circuits. We will then develop and analyze basic NMOS NOR and NAND logic gates, as well as circuits that perform more complex logic functions. The CMOS inverter is the basic of CMOS logic gates. We will analyze the inverter dc voltage transfer characteristics, and will determine the power dissipation in the CMOS inverter, demonstrating the principle advantage of CMOS inverter over NMOS circuits. Next, we will develop the noise margin of the CMOS inverter, and then will develop and analyze basic CMOS NOR and NAND logic gates. Finally, we will look at more advanced clocked CMOS logic circuits which eliminate almost half of transistors in a conventional CMOS logic design while maintaining the low power advantage of the CMOS technology. In a digital system, a transistor can act as a switch between a driving circuit and a load circuit. An NMOS transistor that performs this function is called an NMOS transmission gate; the corresponding CMOS configuration is a CMOS transmission gate. These transmission gates, or pass transistors, can also be configured to perform logic functions, and the circuits are called NMOS-pass or CMOS-pass networks. We will discuss the basics of these networks. Finally in this module, we will consider a few examples of sequential logic circuits. Two dynamic shift registers are defined and analyzed, and a static R-S flip-flop are defined and analyzed.